Courses

  • COURSE TITLE: “INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY”
  • DURATION: TWO WEEKS
  • TYPE: ONLINE/ TWO DAYS ONSITE
  • CERTIFICATION: COMPLETION CERTIFICATE
  • PREREQUISITES: NONE
  • INCLUDED: COURSE MATERIAL, VIDEO ACCESS, LIFE TIME MEMBERSHIP
  • We offer a comprehensive course that will introduce the member to the study of Archaeology in all its aspects and interdisciplinary areas. This will be an online course with material access and study videos .The course will be for a period of two weeks. There will be an on site field study for two days after the first two weeks. It will enable the member to gain a firsthand experience. A sample excavation, tools and physical examination of the material will be done on site. Upon the due completion of the course the member will be issued a course completion certificate and a life time membership of the “Archaeology India ” associations.
  • The following list is the official course curriculum of the Archaeological Institute of India. Our course will be based broadly on the following curriculum in a condensed form .

ASI COURSE MATERIAL

  • Training in multidisciplinary field of Archaeology, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Museology, Conservation, Antiquarian law, etc.
  • Principles of Archaeology. This is a platform course for students who wish to major in history, art, archaeology or anthropology. It explores how objects can be uncovered and studied to help scientists and scholars reconstruct societies, cultures, ceremonies and historical peoples and civilizations.
  • Theories and Approaches of Archaeology Course: Students in this introductory archaeology course discuss why we study ancient cultures and what we can learn from them. They examine the approaches used in archaeology and how that information is used to help us understand humanity’s cultural shift toward the creation of cities and civilizations and the domestication of animals and plants.

Principles and Methods of Archaeology

1. Introduction to Archaeology 

1. Archaeology: definition, scope, relevance

2. Relation with history and science

3. Terms in archaeology: culture, assemblage

2. History of Archaeology 

1. The Background: from antiquarianism to modern archaeology

2. Development of field techniques; growth of archaeology as scientific discipline

3. History of archaeology in colonial India : from 18th century to 1947

4. Archaeology in Independent India: contribution of institutions and individuals

5. Archaeological Theories: A historiographical perspective

3. Methods of Data Retrieval 

1. Field discoveries: aims and methods of Explorations; Chance discoveries; Map and satellite image studies; Village to village survey, salvage archaeology, geophysical methods, sampling methods, Photogrammetry, Geographical Information System

2. Unearthing the sites: planning excavations; layout; techniques of Excavations – Vertical; Horizontal, tools and equipments

3. Excavation of sites: rock-shelter and prehistoric sites; burial; stupa; mud structures, pottery yard etc 

4. Methods of recording the contexts of excavated remains; preparation of sections and plans, role of stratigraphy, three dimensional recording, site formation processes

5. Retrieval of botanical and other non-artefactual remains: Floatation technique, soil analysis, sample collection of various materials

6. Underwater archaeology: Indian studies

7. Experimental archaeology 

4. Post-Excavation Analysis 

1. Classification of objects / findings

2. Reconstruction of socio-economic aspects, including contextual and site catchment analysis

3. Recording methods (a) Drawing-pottery, site and antiquity, plan, elevation, section (b) Photography-indoor, elementary photochemistry (c) Surveying; instruments and their use, preparation of maps, cartography

4. Scientific analysis of excavated remains

5. Establishment of site laboratory

5. Chronology and Dating Methods 

1. Stratigraphy: Principles of stratification, factors and process of formation of layers, Identification and recording of strata, Reconstruction of cultural sequence

2. Determining the chronology and periods of the excavated remains

3. Other methods of Relative chronology: Typology, Statistical studies

4. Absolute methods of dating: Radiocarbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminiscence, Pollen analysis, Fluorine test, Obsidian hydration, Dendrochronology

6. Report writing and Publication 

1. Report writing

2. Preparation of text, drawings, photographs

3. Preparation of dummy, proof reading

Paper – II Application of Sciences in Archaeology

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

  1. Geological time-scale – the position of the Quaternary Period within the standard geological column; plio-pleistocene boundary  

  2. Rocks – types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, their characteristic features, origin and field structures, general information on rocks found in India 

  3. Minerals – definition and types, simple physical properties for distinguishing common minerals: colour, luster, transparency, hardness (Moh’s scale of hardness), fracture and cleavage, crystalline forms of minerals and conditions of crystal formations  

  4. General study of rock forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica 

  5. Minerals used in the manufacture of ancient objects – quartz, chalcedony, agate, jasper, flint, opal, amethyst, carnelian, mica, garnet, calcite, gypsum, talc, beryl, topaz, jade etc.  

  6. Weathering, soils and palaeosols in archaeology: various land forms, nature and causes of weathering, rate of weathering, weathering and site formation, weathering and relative dating, soil micromorphology and archaeology, loess, paleosols 

  7. Fluvial environments in archaeology: river terraces and other formations, alluvial archaeology – understanding site formation and palaeoenvironment; lacustrine deposits and sea level changes  

  8. Formation of caves and glacial deposits – moraines  

  9. Quaternary formations with special reference to India , Geochronology, Biota, Sedimentology 

  10. Pedology, volcanic ash deposits

ANTHROPOLOGY 

  1. Meaning and scope of Anthropology and its relevance in archaeological studies 

  2. Physical anthropology and its application to archaeology, measurements of skull and bones, prognathism, cranial capacity, etc

ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

  1. Palaeo-environmental survey of India during Pleistocene and Holocene with examples

  2. Palaeo-environmental indicators and varieties of evidences

  3. Methods of study, sample collection, different techniques applied

  4. Human – land relationships: understanding the impact of environmental change on early societies  

ARCHAEOZOOLOGY 

  1. Application of archaeozoology in reconstruction of past 

  2. Survey of animal fossil remains and archaeozoological remains from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Palaeontology, fossilization, taphonomy, diatom 

  4. Sample collection, processing, methods of analysis

ARCHAEOBOTANY 

  1. Application of archaeobotany in reconstruction of the past 

  2. Survey of plant remains and related evidences from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Study of wood, grains, impressions, fossils, coprolites, phytoliths, pollens and spores 

  4. Sample collection, processing, methods of analysis, plant DNA

HUMAN OSTEOLOGY AND PALAEOPATHOLOGY 

  1. Application of human osteology in construction of past and various methods of study

  2. Survey of disposal of dead from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Collection methods, methods of cleaning and reconstruction, age and sex estimation, palaeopathology; DNA polymorphism; blood residual studies

QUANTITATIVE METHODS AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 

  1. Place of quantitative methods in archaeological research 

  2. Introduction to simple statistics and its application in interpreting the past